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豆漿 (Soy Milk)
Soy Milk (豆漿)
Soy milk (also called soya milk, soymilk, soybean milk, or soy bean juice) is a beverage made from soybeans. A traditional staple of Asian cuisine, it is a stable emulsion of oil, water and protein. It is produced by soaking dry soybeans and grinding them with water. Soy milk contains about the same proportion of protein as cow's milk: around 3.5%; also 2% fat, 2.9% carbohydrate, and 0.5% ash. Soy milk can be made at home with traditional kitchen tools or with a soy milk machine.
Despite the terminology used by consumers, it is illegal to sell soy milk under that name in the European Union, where - with certain exceptions - EC Regulation (1898/87) has restricted the term 'milk' to mammary secretions since 1987; in such countries the term 'soy drink' is commonly used.
The coagulated protein from soy milk can be made into tofu, just as dairy milk can be made into cheese.
Issues on Health and Nutrition
Soy milk has about the same amount of protein as cow's milk, though the amino acid profile differs. Natural soy milk contains little digestible calcium as it is bound to the bean's pulp, which is insoluble in humans. To counter this, many manufacturers enrich their products with calcium carbonate available to human digestion. Unlike cow's milk, it has little saturated fat and no cholesterol.
Soy products contain sucrose as the basic disaccharide, which breaks down into glucose and fructose. Since soy doesn't contain galactose, a product of lactose breakdown, soy-based infant formulas can safely replace breast milk in children with galactosemia. Like lactose-free cow's milk, soymilk contains no lactose, which makes it a good alternative for lactose-intolerant people. For patients without conditions that limit which sugars they can consume, there is no evidence to support any sugar-related health benefit or detriment to consuming soy milk instead of cow's milk.
The American Academy of Pediatrics considers soy milk a suitable alternative for children who cannot tolerate human or cow's milk, or whose parents opt for a vegan diet. They find no medical benefit to using soy milk instead of human or cow's milk.
Soy milk, like cow's milk, varies in fat content, but the most commonly sold varieties have less fat than whole milk, similar fat content to 2% milk, and more fat than skim/nonfat milk.
Though it has been suggested that soy consumption is associated with a reduction in low-density lipoprotein ("bad cholesterol") and triglycerides, a 2006 study of a decade of soy protein consumption found no association between soy intake and health benefits such as
cardiovascular health or cancer rates, and no benefit for women undergoing menopause. Soy was able to replace animal protein, foods high in saturated fats, and other sources of dietary fiber, vitamins and minerals. However, much of the mineral content in soy milk is unassimilable because of high content of phytic acid in soy milk. If
soy milk is made into tempeh, the phytic acid content is cut in half.
Research has refuted claims that soy affects bone mineral density. Research has found no link between soy and increased estrogen levels in men, although studies thus far have been limited in duration.
For people who suffer from gout, purine in soy can make the condition worse. The US National Institutes of Health (NIH) recommends gout sufferers limit consumption of soy products. In the meantime, NIH also suggests that soy may have health benefits by
reducing the risk for heart disease.